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Sharing and cooperation in geo-information technology
Aziz, T. Lukman

Photogrammetric Compilation
The Aerial triangulation calculations were performed using
PATB-RSG software, which the project received as a B release.
This project was the first big project where this software was
used. Two photogrammetric experts, one from Indonesia and
one from Norway went to Germany to get training in using this
The photogrammetric section was established in July 1993, the
section had four stereo instruments (Zeiss P3) and nine
employees. Three of the employees were expatriate experts.
Along with the teaching and training activities, production
routines were established and operator handbooks written, all
based upon the specifications for the project.
Two of the Indonesian employees had newly graduated from
University within the field of geodesy and photogrammetry, the
other local staff had background from high school or additional
course within computer science.
After approximately half a year with training activities and
another half year with production under close supervision, new
local employees were hired and trained. At this time three
additional new stereo instruments arrived, which mean that
production could go parallel to the training activities.
The new staff were trained by the senior Indonesian Staff, based
on the training programmes made during the initial training
It was noticable that the training gave better results when the
instructors were fluent in Bahasa Indonesia. After half a year
the new photogrammetric operators were in full production.
At peak production in the photogrammetry there were 24
specialized operators working three shifts a day on seven stereo
instruments. At peak production about 45 map sheets were
produced monthly.
Two photogrammetric instruments were available to the Project
Advisory Group at BAKOSURTANAL to perform quality
control at the digital geographic information collected.
Field Compilation
The land surveyors with experience from the scale 1:50.000
topographic mapping in East and South Kalimantan were still
employed by PT.NARCON. These Surveyors were now active
in hiring and training of new young surveyors in field
compilation. BAKOSURTANAL have establish routines for
field compilation that should be followed by Blom-Narcon
Cooperation Surveyors.
The procedures were for the Surveyors to verify the map
content for completeness and correctness. The basis for the
field compilation was a colour plot that contained all
information that were interpreted from the aerial photographs.
They should collect all additional geographic information
according to the map specifications.
Twenty five Surveyors are at present performing the field
compilation and in addition to this five operators are digitizing
the field information using AutoCad Software.
The digital information collected during this production process
is the geographical names and the additional and corrected
geographic information collected in the field.
Quality control routines are established for the geographic
information digitized prior to the transféré of the information
into the central database.
Database Establishment
This is not on production activity by itself, but a result of the
collection of all the digital geographic information produced.
The project has defined different databases which again are
basis for quality control, approval and invoicing.
Database “O’", is a result of an automatic procedure that have
been set up to transféré information collected during
photogrammetric compilation to the cartographic editing
process. This procedure establish a database per mapsheet.
Several preprocessing programs are running to give all
information its initial value for date, quality and accuracy.
The batch processing procedures runs round-the-clock, is
unmanned and checks for more work every half hour. The
hardcopies produced are checked by the photogrammetry
section and later they are transferred to the editing archives,
along with a MAIL message to notify that the cartographic
editing may start. The digital geographic information collected
for one map sheet it now at a production level called Database
“0” and ready for approval by the Client. The Cartographic
editing is divided into three phases, resulting in Database 1, 2
and 3.
They are five local employees running the computer systems in
the production office, all trained by the experts on the project
plus different courses they have followed outside of the office.
There are running the local network two DEC/VAX server
operating under VMS operating system connecting 25 Work
Stations. There are one Windows NT server connecting 30
PC’s of different capacity.
All back up routines and plotting routines are handled by the
computer section.
Cartographic Design
Database 1; the maps are annotated with nine different landuse
types and during the batch processing for Database 1 there are
generated closed polygons for all area symbols.
Contour lines are generated from a terrain model generated
from all 3D information collected during photogrammetric
compilation. The contours are manually labeled.
The Database 1 plot in colour shows the complete map legend
with patterns and symbols.
Database 2; is generated when the digitized information from
field compilation are merged with the Database 1 information.
Here the real cartographic work starts with nameplacings and
using the correct line signatures and line widths. When the
editing of this database is completed and approved by the Client
this is regarded as the final geographic database.
Database 3; is produced for the purpose of offset printing. The
geographic information produced for Database 3 is sorted
according to printing colour and transferred to Corel Draw for
final refinements of text fonts, symbols and patters/screens.
Check plots are produced for each printing colour and approved
by the Client prior to being printed out on an in- house image
setter at 2000 dpi.
The production of Cartographic Design employs 30 employees
of whom two are expatriate experts. The training of the