Full text: Sharing and cooperation in geo-information technology

Photogrammetric Compilation 
The Aerial triangulation calculations were performed using 
PATB-RSG software, which the project received as a B release. 
This project was the first big project where this software was 
used. Two photogrammetric experts, one from Indonesia and 
one from Norway went to Germany to get training in using this 
The photogrammetric section was established in July 1993, the 
section had four stereo instruments (Zeiss P3) and nine 
employees. Three of the employees were expatriate experts. 
Along with the teaching and training activities, production 
routines were established and operator handbooks written, all 
based upon the specifications for the project. 
Two of the Indonesian employees had newly graduated from 
University within the field of geodesy and photogrammetry, the 
other local staff had background from high school or additional 
course within computer science. 
After approximately half a year with training activities and 
another half year with production under close supervision, new 
local employees were hired and trained. At this time three 
additional new stereo instruments arrived, which mean that 
production could go parallel to the training activities. 
The new staff were trained by the senior Indonesian Staff, based 
on the training programmes made during the initial training 
It was noticable that the training gave better results when the 
instructors were fluent in Bahasa Indonesia. After half a year 
the new photogrammetric operators were in full production. 
At peak production in the photogrammetry there were 24 
specialized operators working three shifts a day on seven stereo 
instruments. At peak production about 45 map sheets were 
produced monthly. 
Two photogrammetric instruments were available to the Project 
Advisory Group at BAKOSURTANAL to perform quality 
control at the digital geographic information collected. 
Field Compilation 
The land surveyors with experience from the scale 1:50.000 
topographic mapping in East and South Kalimantan were still 
employed by PT.NARCON. These Surveyors were now active 
in hiring and training of new young surveyors in field 
compilation. BAKOSURTANAL have establish routines for 
field compilation that should be followed by Blom-Narcon 
Cooperation Surveyors. 
The procedures were for the Surveyors to verify the map 
content for completeness and correctness. The basis for the 
field compilation was a colour plot that contained all 
information that were interpreted from the aerial photographs. 
They should collect all additional geographic information 
according to the map specifications. 
Twenty five Surveyors are at present performing the field 
compilation and in addition to this five operators are digitizing 
the field information using AutoCad Software. 
The digital information collected during this production process 
is the geographical names and the additional and corrected 
geographic information collected in the field. 
Quality control routines are established for the geographic 
information digitized prior to the transféré of the information 
into the central database. 
Database Establishment 
This is not on production activity by itself, but a result of the 
collection of all the digital geographic information produced. 
The project has defined different databases which again are 
basis for quality control, approval and invoicing. 
Database “O’", is a result of an automatic procedure that have 
been set up to transféré information collected during 
photogrammetric compilation to the cartographic editing 
process. This procedure establish a database per mapsheet. 
Several preprocessing programs are running to give all 
information its initial value for date, quality and accuracy. 
The batch processing procedures runs round-the-clock, is 
unmanned and checks for more work every half hour. The 
hardcopies produced are checked by the photogrammetry 
section and later they are transferred to the editing archives, 
along with a MAIL message to notify that the cartographic 
editing may start. The digital geographic information collected 
for one map sheet it now at a production level called Database 
“0” and ready for approval by the Client. The Cartographic 
editing is divided into three phases, resulting in Database 1, 2 
and 3. 
They are five local employees running the computer systems in 
the production office, all trained by the experts on the project 
plus different courses they have followed outside of the office. 
There are running the local network two DEC/VAX server 
operating under VMS operating system connecting 25 Work 
Stations. There are one Windows NT server connecting 30 
PC’s of different capacity. 
All back up routines and plotting routines are handled by the 
computer section. 
Cartographic Design 
Database 1; the maps are annotated with nine different landuse 
types and during the batch processing for Database 1 there are 
generated closed polygons for all area symbols. 
Contour lines are generated from a terrain model generated 
from all 3D information collected during photogrammetric 
compilation. The contours are manually labeled. 
The Database 1 plot in colour shows the complete map legend 
with patterns and symbols. 
Database 2; is generated when the digitized information from 
field compilation are merged with the Database 1 information. 
Here the real cartographic work starts with nameplacings and 
using the correct line signatures and line widths. When the 
editing of this database is completed and approved by the Client 
this is regarded as the final geographic database. 
Database 3; is produced for the purpose of offset printing. The 
geographic information produced for Database 3 is sorted 
according to printing colour and transferred to Corel Draw for 
final refinements of text fonts, symbols and patters/screens. 
Check plots are produced for each printing colour and approved 
by the Client prior to being printed out on an in- house image 
setter at 2000 dpi. 
The production of Cartographic Design employs 30 employees 
of whom two are expatriate experts. The training of the

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