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Proceedings, XXth congress

Fahmi Amhar?
* Researcher in Mapping & Technical Manager of Kalimantan Mapping
National Coordinating Agency for Surveys and Mapping, Bakosurtanal
Cibinong Science Centre, JI. Jakarta Bogor Km. 46 Cibinong, Indonesia
Telp. /Fax. +62-21-87901254; email: famhar@telkom.net, famhar@yahoo.com
TS 1 YF Youth Forum - Photogrammetry
KEY WORDS: GPS/INS, georeferencing, identification, triangulation, photographs, orientation, adjustment
If a large number of old aerial photographs is exist but there is no premarked ground-control- and also no kinematics-GPS on board
of photo-centre-position for aerial triangulation, then the post GCP-survey would be very hard. The most problem is to identify the
place on photographs to the current situation and to get the place. In the first part, the experience of such project in Kalimantan
will be explained. In the second part is the idea how to accelerate and optimised the whole GCP survey.
1.1 General Condition
Kalimantan (Borneo) is one of the largest islands in the world.
The Indonesian part of Kalimantan is about 540,148 sqkm.
The Island is just 43 % topographic mapped on 1:50.000 scale.
A large part is not yet mapped due to: (1) the ever-cloudy
situation; (2) the limited state budget to do systematic mapping
over the whole island.
During the Era of Soeharto's government, the ministry for
forestry has obligated to all forest concession holder company
to make aerial photographs for their concession area. Between
1990-1993, each company made their photographs used
different camera, aircrafts etc. These aerial photographs are
stored to the ministry as evidence of the forest situation. No
topographic map is made from these photographs.
After the end. of Soeharto's regime, there is new condition,
which focused to re-use the photographs. The paradigm of
district wide-autonomy has increased the consciousness of the
district authorities of Kalimantan, that they need also qualified
topographic map in middle and larger scale. This demand is
pushed by the facts of increasing illegal logging, wild forest
fire, and claim from indigenous people for land-common-right
and other environmental problem. These entire problems are
There are some technology on the market to make
topographical map for scale 1:50.000, ie. (1) airborne
photogrammetry using existing (forestry) photos; (2) airborne
photogrammetry using new photos; (3) SPOTS-Stereo or
ASTER-Stereo; (4) Airborne Interferometric SAR (IFSAR);
and (5) Lidar Imaging. Due to the budget constraints, and the
cloud situation, the option (1) is in favor.
The reason: topography data (DTM) is the most expensive part
in topographic database and in the area is mostly not changed.
Only the land cover is changed, and this should be updated
from Landsat or Aster data. The option (1) shows the respect :
of the current government to save money and re-use the
existing assets. The problem is this concept never proven for a
large area. ;
In 2002 the National Coordinating Agency for Surveying and
Mapping (Bakosurtanal) decided to use aerial
photographs to make new topographic map for part of East
Kalimantan, about 80,000 sqkm (8 Million hectare) to execute
in 2003. The financing plans about 14000 aerial photographs
to be processed in this year. :
1.2 The Selection of the Photographs
About 70000 aerial photographs of scale 1:15.000 — 1:22.000
were made for forest concession holder. The large scale is
while the aircraft had to fly under the cloud. The photographs
would be made mainly on forest area; also not what in the time
of capture was cities, swamps, big river etc. Different holder
means different project, different camera, different scale,
different numbering system on photos and different photo
quality. It was very hard job to select adequate and useful
photos. There are many overlaps between photos. In other
location, there are also individual gaps where no any photo
exists. The overlaps are caused by the fact that some company
has taken photographs several times, by some reason
(unsatisfying of the previous result, regular update to know the
last forest situation after fires, cut off or replant). The last and
best quality photo will be taken to the next process.
The selection process used the photo-index database.
Unfortunately, this database was in many cases inaccurate.