Full text: Remote sensing for resources development and environmental management (Volume 1)

Coincidence of components borders 
Revealing natural borders in contrast to 
temporary and casual borders as well as 
their control by relief, hydrography, ve 
getation, soils, deposits types, rocks and 
other indicators 
Thematic interpretation of air-space pho 
tographs on landscape basis 
Recurrence (rhythmics) and its regularities 
Elective study of structure of PTK types 
by the key plot method 
Revealing PTK typological units 
Specificity of structure 
Use of physiognomic structure as a lands* 
cape indicator when studying forests by 
small-scale and supersmall-scale photog- 
Similarity of structure of units which are 
genetically and dynamically similar 
Grounds for Intralandscape extrapolation 
within PTK types 
Revealing regularity of the structure on 
the basis of the most physiognomic PTK of 
the type under study with subsequent extra 
polation into weak physiognomic 
Remote sensing photographs available at the 
disposal of specialists have a wide range 
resolution and they allow to study PTK pra 
ctically with any degree of detail. The 
sequential analysis of taiga lands' morp 
hological structure "from top to bottom" is 
possible, beginning from PTK of the highest 
ranks (landscape lands, regions, districts) 
and finishing with stow facial structure 
study with the use of large-scale airphoto- 
graphs. Such interpretation sequence is po 
ssible only in case, when at all stages of 
air-space photographs interpretation not 
individual, but typological categories of 
landscapes, terrains, stows and facies are 
revealed. Multistage study of landscapes' 
morphological structure is coincided with 
landscape mapping. All the land of the 
Earth is subdivided into landscape lands 
which can be mapped at the scale not more 
than 6*l(f 7 . Landscape regions are revealed 
within the landscape lands and landscape 
maps at the scale of<3*10’ 7 are compiled. 
Within the regions the landscape kinds are 
revealed and mapped at the scMe of 10’ 7 . 
Within the landscape kinds on the key plots 
of the first order (10~^ scales) maps of 
landscape localities are compiled. Winter 
TV space photographs with low resolution 
have been found out to be perspective. On 
the key plots of the second order 
(10’ 5 scales) stow types are studied. The 
solution of this task is possible by winter 
and autyfim space photographs. On the key 
E lots of the third order (10”^ scales) wit- 
in the stow types facial structure is stu 
died and mapped. For the purpose large-scale 
airphotos and enlarged mean-scale airphotos 
of good photographic quality are necessary. 
On the key plots of the second order it is 
possible to project landscape profiles for 
ground study of facies' structure and ecolo 
Landscape profiles represent the vertical 
section of PTK along the straight line exp 
ressing the geological structure and litho 
logical composition of rocks, waters, vege 
tation and animal communities. The landscape 
profile gives a visual representation of the 
interconnections of natural components, PTK 
natural borders genesis, about the guiding 
role of geologo-geomorphological factors. 
When air-space photos landscape interpreta 
tion is widely used as well as preliminary 
different scale PTK mapping, there is no ne 
cessity in landscape profiles of large ex 
The conjugated stows testing can be per 
formed with the help of landscape profiles 
with the extent from several hundreds of me 
ters to 1.0 - 1.5 km. The landscape profile 
scale must be comparable or equal to the la 
ndscape map scale. The vertical scale is ma 
de somewhat larger with the aim of more ex- 
f ressive (plastic) demonstration of the re 
leí, thicknesses of quaternary deposits and 
At present since space-air survey scales' 
range is widened, almost all the operations 
on landscape mapping can be executed in la 
boratory and the field work can be restric 
ted to facial descriptions on landscape pro 
The sequential different scale analysis 
of the morphological PTK structure "from top 
to bottom", from the general to the particu 
lar is the most perspective under the condi 
tions of inaccessible taiga - bog zone. The 
sequence of the method ensures the most com 
plete cover of the whole natural complexes' 
diversity in the studies regions. Due to the 
rational landscape profiles distribution, 
their concentration at the most accessible 
places for ground survey, the reduction of 
their extent, the total volume of field 
works is considerably reduced. 
Different scale study of PTK structure is 
of great importance, since it structurally 
confirms or refuses the correctness of lar 
ger natural complexes revealing or it serves 
as a reliable control for conditioning of 
landscape - morphological investigations. 
It is particularly visual on the landscape 
maps of small, mean and large scales, compi 
led for the eastern part of the West-Siberi- 
an plain. The Kass landscape terrains study 
confirms its structural homogeneity, separa 
tion and reliance of nature borders. Stow 
study structurally confirms the correctness 
of terrain types revealing. Terrains' bor 
ders are well read on stow combinations. 
In the PTK ranges the close interconnection 
and the genetic conjunction of all the com 
ponents, landscape elements, ecological re 
gimes and dynamic processes are observed. At 
the same time when interpreting "the closed" 
forest lands, various studied objects* fea 
tures are insufficiently expressed that ma 
kes difficult remote sensing of them. So one 
of the perspective interpretation methods is 
the landscape indicators method. When visual 
observation and remote sensing imagery are 
used, landscape indicators are physiognomic 
components and landscape elements, PTK with 
the features of their structure, connected 
with indication objects - indicators conce 
aled from the visual observation and remote 
registration. The most important for air-spa 
ce photos interpretation are such Indicators 
as relief, vegetation, people's activity re 
sults, erosion-hydrographic network and wa

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