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Remote sensing for resources development and environmental management
Damen, M. C. J.

il and space
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Figure 4. Diagram of data base configuration
for digital maps and graphical facilities.
content interpretation and processing, upda
ting, as well as, some land-use data retrie
The cadastral maps compiled as we have al
ready mentioned, which are supplemented by
aerial and space conventional and multispec-
tral data imagery are used in land-use moni
toring. In view of these facts, methodologies
to use aerial photographs in land-use moni
toring have been established; these photo
graphs are a real and efficient information
source supplying a large data volume exis
ting in the field. Obviously, results are de
pending on many factors, among which we men
tion: aerial photograph and photosensitive
material qualities, the best period selec
tion, emphasize on phenomena to be monitored,
the best aerial photograph scale selection,
equipment, human operator experience and
skill in aerial photograph, data and infor
mation interpretations.
Several accomplished themes related to
land-use monitoring could be mentioned: study
on land evolution within hydromeliorative sys
tems, land-use monitoring within settlements,
and monitoring surfaces, on which garbage and
industrial wastes are to be found. Some other
themes are to be approached, using also other
data sources such as multispectral data deli
vered by aerial and space platforms, aiming
at the development of a complex cadastre be
ing able to permanently monitor land-use, in
real time.
- On land evolution within hydromeliorative
In the last decades, large irrigation and
drainage systems have been developed in va
rious country zones. Aerial photograph ta
king in some special time periods, these ae
rial photograph interpretations, and conclu
sions presented to the decision-making units
are recommended, to monitor their running
effects on the respective fields.
Studies using 1:12,000-1:15,000 soale ae
rial photographs and photogrammetric products
over diked areas in the Danube Delta and ir
rigation systems in other country zones have
been made, in order to develope a proper me
thodology. The execution project related to
canal network, the respective system running
efficiencies, and the secondary effects(marsh
formation, salinity,a.s.o.), efficient land-
use in farming, according to the land manage
ment projects, and land cadastre updating
were implemented in the above mentioned stu
The developed methodology recommends : ta
king aerial photographs during periods of
time when the respective systems have a maxi
mum load, carrying out photogrammetric docu
ments emphasizing excess moisture, correla
tion among excess moisture zones and micro-
relief shapes, excess moisture surface map
ping and estimation, correlation between the
respective zone photographic image and the
corresponding map showing the isophreatic
lines emphasizing the field excess moisture),
densitométrie measurements using diagrams and
interpretations, as well as, phenomena which
cannot be percieved by visual photointerpre
tation, correlation among types of soil ha
ving vegetations covering excess humidity
surfaces, according to the photographic image.
- On land-use monitoring within settlements
Towns and villages are permanently and in
tensively extending; as a result of a new and
impressive social, cultural and economic de
velopment. The national land resource legis
lation provides allotment of lands for va
rious fields of activity, without diminishing
farming and forest surfaces. Periodical
1:20,000 scale aerial photographs are taken,
to supervise these legislation provisions,
aiming at: the settlement building limit i-
dentlfications, field identifications within
the settlements to be built, and their use
previous to the dwelling development and put
ting under crop the lands, which temporally
were improper to agriculture because their
wrong uses.
- On monitoring surfaces on which garbage
and industrial wastes are to be found
Concentrations of wastes, cinder, slag and
refuse are permanently carried and deposited
in large usual natural holes on non-produc
tive fields. Stockpiling in densely popula
ted towns and large industrial plants have
always brought about serious problems, be
cause it must comply with the legal provi
sions regarding health safety conditions,
soil, water and air pollutions. The studies
implemented, and which have used aerial pho
tographs recommends: identification of far
ming lands covered by wastes, stockpiling
approval checkings, depositing dynamics moni
toring according to the technical documenta
tion, its effect on the neighboured zones,
putting lands under crop, according to the
schedule, based on the established projects.
Stockpiling zones for garbage and indus
trial wastes for some large towns with heavy
industries have been studied, using 1:4,000
scale periodical aerial photographs used as
a base for 1:500 scale topographic mapping;
hole stockpiling volume has been calculated
according to stockpiling rate; filling dia
grams have been developed and, finally, put
ting these lands under crops.
Some themes on the national land-use moni
toring have been briefly presented, using ae
rial photographs and photogrammetric docu
ments. Methodologies for all approached
themes are developed using the above men
tioned studies.
Space multispectral imagery taken in the
course of the last mid-decade (Zegheru 1976)
has been experimentally used to monitor the
national land-use, for the first time in our
country. Our own system to automatically pro
cess remote sensing digital multispectral da
ta (SPADAM) for unsupervised multispectral
image classifications, using histograms