Full text: Remote sensing for resources development and environmental management (Volume 2)

il and space 
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Figure 4. Diagram of data base configuration 
for digital maps and graphical facilities. 
content interpretation and processing, upda 
ting, as well as, some land-use data retrie 
The cadastral maps compiled as we have al 
ready mentioned, which are supplemented by 
aerial and space conventional and multispec- 
tral data imagery are used in land-use moni 
toring. In view of these facts, methodologies 
to use aerial photographs in land-use moni 
toring have been established; these photo 
graphs are a real and efficient information 
source supplying a large data volume exis 
ting in the field. Obviously, results are de 
pending on many factors, among which we men 
tion: aerial photograph and photosensitive 
material qualities, the best period selec 
tion, emphasize on phenomena to be monitored, 
the best aerial photograph scale selection, 
equipment, human operator experience and 
skill in aerial photograph, data and infor 
mation interpretations. 
Several accomplished themes related to 
land-use monitoring could be mentioned: study 
on land evolution within hydromeliorative sys 
tems, land-use monitoring within settlements, 
and monitoring surfaces, on which garbage and 
industrial wastes are to be found. Some other 
themes are to be approached, using also other 
data sources such as multispectral data deli 
vered by aerial and space platforms, aiming 
at the development of a complex cadastre be 
ing able to permanently monitor land-use, in 
real time. 
- On land evolution within hydromeliorative 
In the last decades, large irrigation and 
drainage systems have been developed in va 
rious country zones. Aerial photograph ta 
king in some special time periods, these ae 
rial photograph interpretations, and conclu 
sions presented to the decision-making units 
are recommended, to monitor their running 
effects on the respective fields. 
Studies using 1:12,000-1:15,000 soale ae 
rial photographs and photogrammetric products 
over diked areas in the Danube Delta and ir 
rigation systems in other country zones have 
been made, in order to develope a proper me 
thodology. The execution project related to 
canal network, the respective system running 
efficiencies, and the secondary effects(marsh 
formation, salinity,a.s.o.), efficient land- 
use in farming, according to the land manage 
ment projects, and land cadastre updating 
were implemented in the above mentioned stu 
The developed methodology recommends : ta 
king aerial photographs during periods of 
time when the respective systems have a maxi 
mum load, carrying out photogrammetric docu 
ments emphasizing excess moisture, correla 
tion among excess moisture zones and micro- 
relief shapes, excess moisture surface map 
ping and estimation, correlation between the 
respective zone photographic image and the 
corresponding map showing the isophreatic 
lines emphasizing the field excess moisture), 
densitométrie measurements using diagrams and 
interpretations, as well as, phenomena which 
cannot be percieved by visual photointerpre 
tation, correlation among types of soil ha 
ving vegetations covering excess humidity 
surfaces, according to the photographic image. 
- On land-use monitoring within settlements 
Towns and villages are permanently and in 
tensively extending; as a result of a new and 
impressive social, cultural and economic de 
velopment. The national land resource legis 
lation provides allotment of lands for va 
rious fields of activity, without diminishing 
farming and forest surfaces. Periodical 
1:20,000 scale aerial photographs are taken, 
to supervise these legislation provisions, 
aiming at: the settlement building limit i- 
dentlfications, field identifications within 
the settlements to be built, and their use 
previous to the dwelling development and put 
ting under crop the lands, which temporally 
were improper to agriculture because their 
wrong uses. 
- On monitoring surfaces on which garbage 
and industrial wastes are to be found 
Concentrations of wastes, cinder, slag and 
refuse are permanently carried and deposited 
in large usual natural holes on non-produc 
tive fields. Stockpiling in densely popula 
ted towns and large industrial plants have 
always brought about serious problems, be 
cause it must comply with the legal provi 
sions regarding health safety conditions, 
soil, water and air pollutions. The studies 
implemented, and which have used aerial pho 
tographs recommends: identification of far 
ming lands covered by wastes, stockpiling 
approval checkings, depositing dynamics moni 
toring according to the technical documenta 
tion, its effect on the neighboured zones, 
putting lands under crop, according to the 
schedule, based on the established projects. 
Stockpiling zones for garbage and indus 
trial wastes for some large towns with heavy 
industries have been studied, using 1:4,000 
scale periodical aerial photographs used as 
a base for 1:500 scale topographic mapping; 
hole stockpiling volume has been calculated 
according to stockpiling rate; filling dia 
grams have been developed and, finally, put 
ting these lands under crops. 
Some themes on the national land-use moni 
toring have been briefly presented, using ae 
rial photographs and photogrammetric docu 
ments. Methodologies for all approached 
themes are developed using the above men 
tioned studies. 
Space multispectral imagery taken in the 
course of the last mid-decade (Zegheru 1976) 
has been experimentally used to monitor the 
national land-use, for the first time in our 
country. Our own system to automatically pro 
cess remote sensing digital multispectral da 
ta (SPADAM) for unsupervised multispectral 
image classifications, using histograms

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