Full text: Sharing and cooperation in geo-information technology

Aerial Photography 
40693 linekilometres had to be flown to cover the area to be 
mapped with scale 1:30.000 and 1: 50.000 aerial photographs. 
Photogrammetry Compilation 
9378 stereo models had to be compiled. All geographic 
information digitized was to be registered in 3D. Nine different 
landuse classes had to be registered. 
Field Compilation 
1662 map sheets had to be verified in the field Geographic 
names should be collected and approved. Administrative 
boundaries down to “Desa” level should be included in the 
maps. Roads had to be classified into six different classes and 
symbols had to be collected for government offices, hospitals, 
school etc. 
Database Establishment 
This is an minor activity in the analog map production, but for 
digital geographic information it is a very significant task. For 
all the information collected into the database each feature have 
to have an unique code with reference to the quality and the data 
collection method used. 
Cartographic Processing 
The map sheet design, the text and symbols had to be digitally 
produced. A challenge was to produced a Cartographic product 
that was similar to the scale 1:25.000 BAKOSURTANAL 
specification for analog produced maps. 
Offset Printing 
The 1662 digitally produced maps had to be colour separated 
into six colour and films for platemaking printed out utilizing an 
image setter. 
Blom ASA of Norway chose a conservative technical approach 
in implementation of this big mapping project. 
With a limited time frame and with limited financial recourses, 
only well tested equipment and software were chosen for the 
project. In the project there were some money for maintenance 
and training, but little for new investments. 
For a project running over eight years it is very different to 
predict what shall happen in the technical development in an 
industry based on computer technology. If investments in new 
equipment should be made, it had to be proven that this resulted 
in a productivity gain. 
At the time of the project start-up, it were the colour plotters to 
be used that caused the biggest concern. At the time they were 
very expensive and needed a lot of service. 
All production had to take place in Indonesia and for most 
Norwegian this is an unfamiliar work environment, with high 
temperature and high humidity. 
Hiring of personnel started in May 1993 and the first shipment 
of equipment arrived in Indonesia July 1993. 
When the first expatriate experts arrived in Indonesia in June- 
July 1993 they started their lessons in Bahasa Indonesia at the 
same time as they worked on manuals for work procedures. 
Ground Control Surveying 
Trimble 4000SSE GPS receives, Sokkia Totalstations and Tirta 
Harapan Pressure loggers were to be used. The pressure loggers 
were used for establishing height control for the islands east of 
Lombok. About 8000 kms of trigonometric leveling was 
performed using the Sokkia Total stations. 
Prior to the start up of the on going mapping project, the 
Surveyors from the Indonesian partner, PT. NARCON had no 
experience within the field of GPS technology. However they 
had a lot of valuable experience from traditional field surveying, 
also from remote areas. 
Before the start up of the field operations, a course was given 
comprising of GPS theory, demands for establishing the GPS 
points and how to make an efficient schedule for GPS 
observations. Based on this knowledge, the surveying teams 
were sent to the field to start the establishing of monuments and 
premark for aerial photography. Parallel to this work, the 
Supervisors, one for each of the fire field teams, were given 
additional training. 
The placing of the first order ground control points were mainly 
determine by the flight plan. During the flight mission 
Kinematic GPS was utilized, this reduced the number of ground 
control points needed by about 90% compared with methods for 
aerial triangulation previously used. On the request from 
BAKOSURTANAL one first order control point was 
established close to the capital of each Kabupaten. 
It was important to have the monuments and premarking in 
place prior to the start up of aerial photography. Later the GPS 
observations were made and finally the tidal measurements and 
the leveling for height control were performed. Before departure 
for field work about one week of training were given to the 
surveyors in each of the different activities. All the Surveyors 
had a lot of on the job training. The biggest challenge during the 
ground control surveying was the communication between the 
surveying teams and the transportation in remote areas with 
very limited infrastructure. 
The whole ground control operation was completed within the 
two first years of the project. 
Aerial Photography 
The aerial photography for the project was sub-control to the 
Indonesian company PT.EXSA. Blom-Narcon Cooperation 
asked the sub-contracted to complete the aerial photography for 
limited geographic areas (photo blocks) at one time before 
moving into another area. PT.EXSA however explained that due 
to the climatic conditions in Indonesia, it was not possible to 
complete the aerial photography for such a big geographic area 
within a limited timeframe. Blom-Narcon Cooperation had to 
accept this fact and workc together with PT.EXSA to establish 
good routines for utilizing kinematics GPS during flight 
missions to get an accurate positions for each photo center. 
As this in August 1993 was new technology, one expert from 
the Agriculture University of Norway, Department of Surveying 
was invited to take part in developing this new technology in 
Indonesia. The university was asked to support the project in the 
initial phase to develop quality control system for GPS 
calculations of the projection centers. Monitoring of the quality 
and approval of the negative films was a major task for about 
12000 aerial photographs. A quality and photo coverage 
monitoring system was developed using AutoCAD software. 
The position of photocentres were plotted relative to the flight 
plan and the quality criteria for both negative film and GPS 
were monitored together with the photo coverage. Photo 
laboratory personnel and draftsmen with experience from PT. 
NARCON were trained to run this monitoring system for photo 

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