Full text: International cooperation and technology transfer

In those years Codevintec Italiana (Milan), WILD 
Heerbrugg, now Leica, Geotop (Ancona) and may be others 
lent some GPS receivers to the Universities: therefore these 
companies gave a very important contribution to the 
progress of GPS researches in Italy. 
Some Italian Universities, under the leadership of 
Politecnic of Milan, performed very important theoretical 
researches in particular on the processing methods and in 
geoidal models. 
In 1990 IGM began the measurements for the GPS first 
order network, IGM95, which is now tha backbone of 
italian geodesy and cartography. 
In the hardware domain, Elettronica SpA, Rome designed 
and constructed a small number of GPS geodetic receivers 
for the Italian Space Agency. 
Fast Static, OTF (On The Fly) are well known methods 
which has been commercially delivered since 1995. No 
other so much important techniques have been introduced 
in the last years, even if several electronic innovations have 
reduced the weight and speeded up the GPS receivers. 
GPS is now at consumer level; a TV geographic play uses 
GPS. Nevertheless the diffusion of GPS is less fast than 
expected. The main limitation to the diffusion of GPS is the 
lack of a national RTCM radiodiffusion service. Hence our 
present main effort is to push the production of this service, 
after having experimented and choosen the best system, 
among the available, which are 
Terrestrial diffusion 
ALF, Accurate Positioning by Low 
Frequency, operated by Bundesamt fuer Cartographie 
und Geodesie (BKG) in Frankfurt am Main 
Marine Radiobeacon as operated in 
the past from Venice and now from Vieste (Foggia) 
RDS (Radio Data System) 
DARC(Data Radio Channel)/Swift 
(System for Wireless Infotainment Forwarding and 
Télédistribution): it is used by ORF, the Austrian Radio 
Television Company, on the FM band, to diffuse RTCM 
and RTK in whole Austria 
DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting): it is 
under test in Germany and in Italy, province of Bozen 
(RAI and RAS) 
Mobile telephones 
The University of Trieste has been carried out some 
kinematic experiments, also in cooperation with RAS, 
Bozen, on DAB as well as on ALF and on Marine 
Radiobeacon and with mobile telephones. The results have 
shown a general feasibility of the methods in terms of 
accuracy, while the mobile telephone link suffered frequent 
Satellite telecomunication diffusion 
RACAL , OMNISTAR are world wide commercial services; 
EGNOS , European Geostationary Overlay Service , is a 
European Community project bom for air traffc control. 
All of them diffuse the RTCM corrections on a carrier in the 
same band of the GPS signals. 
The service is at least continental so that Wide Area 
refractivity models have to be used in order to reduce the 
errors due to the long distances from the Master station. 
Being based on geostationary satellites, their signals can be 
eclipsed by buildings and other obstacles so that they are not 
feasible in a limited sky environment like urban areas. 
In the last years, the Italian Universities have participated to 
the repetition of several very important Mediterranean and 
Europen geodinamical GPS campaigns. Also many geodetic 
GPS campaigns have been performed for cartography, soil 
movement monitoring, costruction of transport infrastructures 
and survey of glaciers. Experiments have been carried out on 
road survey by means of intergrated GPS/INS and Laser 
scanning, GPS+GLONASS terrestrial vehicle trajectories , 
oscillation measurements of a chimney by means of high 
sampling rate GPS , Airborne Laser Scanning , atmospheric 
pollution monitoring by GPS positioned vehicles equipped 
with gas sensors . 
Several GPS reference stations are in operation, the first one 
has been installed in Matera by the Italian Space Agency. 
Nuova Telespazio SpA operates some reference stations too 
and participates together ENAV, the Air Traffic Control 
Authority, to EGNOS: flight experiments have been already 
done in Ciampino (Rome) airport.

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